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圣帕特里克节ppt

这是圣帕特里克节ppt,包括了Why Are They All In Green?Questions,St. Patrick’s Day,Key words,St. Patrick’s Day 的三大符号,Green Beer绿色啤酒等内容,欢迎点击下载。

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St. Patrick's Day圣帕特里克节 Questions Why are they all in green? What is St. Patrick’s Day? What story? How Do We Celebrate St. Patrick's Day? What are the traditions and symbols for it? St. Patrick’s Day St. Patrick’s Day occurs annually on March 17 in observance of the death of St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland. What began as a religious feast day in the 17th century has evolved into a variety of festivals across the globe celebrating Irish culture with parades, special foods, music, dancing, and a whole lot of green. Test Your Shamrock Smarts Ah, it's that time of the year again - the time for green milkshakes, 4 leaf clover green costume jewelry, and buckets upon buckets of dyed green beer. Just how knowledgeable are you about St. Patrick's Day? Take our short quiz - answers below (no cheating!) Question 1  Why is the Shamrock (3 leaf clover) associated with St. Patrick's Day? Because they're pretty Because the three leaves represent the 3 foundations of the Irish culture Because the three leaves represent the Holy Trinity Because the three leaves represent the three colors of the Irish flag Question 1 Answer (c). The shamrock was originally a teaching tool that St. Patrick is said to have used to explain the what the Holy Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) was to the Irish. Question 2 True or False - St. Patrick is from Ireland. Question 4 True or False - In America, it's a tradition to pinch anybody who isn't wearing green on St. Patrick's Day. Question 2: Answer (False). A recent study from Cambridge believes that St. Patrick's father was a Roman tax official in Wales who wanted out and used a Roman legal clause that allowed him to join the clergy and pass the job on to his son. However, Patrick did not want the job and, fearing for his life, fled to Ireland. Question 4: Answer (True). Rumor has it that this tradition started because wearing green makes you invisible to leprechauns, who pinch anyone they see. Question 3 The three colors of the Irish flag represent different things. Green stands for Catholics, orange for Protestants, and white stands for... The ghost of Jesus Christ A wish for harmony Purity Save the Polar Bears Question 3 Answer (b). The white color in the Irish flag actually represents the wish for peace and harmony between Catholics and Protestants. Question 5  The first ever St. Patrick's Day Parade was in 1762 in which country? China Ireland the UK the USA Question 5 Answer (d). The world’s first St. Patrick’s Day parade was on March 17, 1762, in New York City and featured Irish soldiers serving in the English military and became an annual event afterwards. 中文名 St. Patrick's day St. Paddy's Day 爱尔兰人也被称为Paddy 解 释 圣帕特里克节 时 间 每年的3月17日 性 质 爱尔兰的国庆节 Key words An Irish holiday: 是个爱尔兰的节日 Widely celebrated across Europe and North America: 但在欧洲、北美广泛庆祝 Commemorate Saint Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland:  节日纪念爱尔兰的守护神圣派特里克 Green is the color of Ireland: 绿色是代表爱尔兰的颜色 Green everything on St. Patrick's Day: green hats, green clothes, etc: 所以圣派特里克日到处都是绿,绿帽子、绿衣服 St. Patrick's Day parades: 圣派特里克日庆祝游行 Green “带绿帽子”的说法: To cheat on one's husband/boyfriend To go behind their back To have an affair Why wear green? -One of Ireland's nicknames is "the Emerald Isle". 爱尔兰的其中一个别称是「翡翠之岛」。 --Green is one of the 3 colors of the Irish flag. 绿色是爱尔兰国旗的三种顏色之一。 -Shamrocks, a symbol of Ireland, are green. 象徵爱尔兰的三叶酢酱草是绿色的。 St. Patrick’s Day 的三大符号 Shamrock ,三叶苜蓿草 :Shamrock 是爱尔兰语“seamrog ”( 小苜蓿草) 的音译。爱尔兰人崇尚“好事成三”,“三”是他们的吉祥数字。据说St. Patrick 用三叶草来向爱尔兰人诠释Trinity : The Father, The Son, and the Holy Spirit ( 圣父、圣子、圣灵) 。Shamrock 还衍生出了其他意义,譬如Crone, Mother and Virgin ; Love, Valor and Wit ;Faith, Hope and Charity ;还有人开玩笑说是wine, women and song 。 Leprechauns 魔域小矮仙  爱尔兰的神话传说中有很多精灵妖怪,Leprechauns 只是其中之一。据说他们是独群索居的矮小精灵,性格刁钻古怪,靠制鞋为生,且藏有很多金银财宝,特别是那罐Pot of Gold, 是他们身份的标志。传说彩虹rainbow出现的地方总有宝藏,那里也必然就有Leprechauns 。 节日传说 在很久以前有一个小男孩在晚上的时候出来玩耍,可是他突然在一片草丛里听见叫声:“help(救命)!”他听见以后猛的在草丛旁边寻找声音。突然他在草丛里看见一个留有白胡须和白头发的小矮人。他一把抓住这小人问:“你是谁?”小矮人(小精灵)说:“你放开我吧。”小男孩说:“你把你的金子藏在的地方告诉我,我就放了你。”小矮人说:“好,好,我告诉你,就在那颗树的下面!”小男孩立刻就放了小矮人,他跑过去,想把土挖开,可是他没有铲子,所以他就想回家去拿,他又怕忘记了,就把身上的黄色手帕给绑在树上,并提醒小矮人不可以把手帕给摘下。可是第二天当他拿着铲子来的时候,发现整个森林里的树都有黄色的手帕,所以他就丧气的回家了,而躲在树后的小精灵说:“我可没有把手帕给摘下。 Green Beer 绿色啤酒 相传St. Patrick 教会了爱尔兰人怎么酿酒从而帮助他们御寒健体。如今爱尔兰人心头大患之一就是他们很难摆脱“酒鬼”的形象,St. Patrick’s Day 本属于天主教的斋期,却给了人们饮酒寻欢的机会。爱尔兰的名酒牌子还真不少: Guinness 、 Jameson’s 、 Bailey’s ,然而绿啤酒却是美国的发明。但是爱尔兰人的饮酒习俗中有个说法叫 wet/drown the shamrock , 即是在杯子里放几片shamrock ,再倒入Irish Whiskey 饮用。到了美国却是将普通啤酒染成绿色,畅怀大饮一醉方休。 Our Favorite St. Paddy's Day Beverages Beverages Beverages Beverages Saint Patrick's Day, March 17, is a Christian religious holiday that celebrates the patron saint of Ireland. According to the legend, St. Patrick drove all the snakes out of Ireland. St. Patrick's Day has also become, especially in the United States, a day to celebrate Irish culture. In major cities across the country like in New York and Boston, there are parades and festivals. People wear green and decorate with shamrocks, a type of three-leaf clover. Some people wear buttons or tee shirts that say "Kiss me, I'm Irish". In the U.S. St. Patrick's Day is not a legal holiday, meaning government offices and schools are open. The biggest and oldest parade takes place in New York City. It actually began about 250 years ago before the U.S. was even its own country. Every year thousands gather along the famous Fifth Avenue to watch hundreds of Irish step dancers and bagpipe players march. Irish step dancing is done in groups or solo. Dancers perform complicated moves with their feet and legs while keeping their upper bodies stiff. The parade has also been a source of controversy because the parade is associated with the Catholic Church in New York City; gay and lesbian organizations have not been allowed to march. Many people protest the parade or boycott it. St. Patrick's Day has also become associated with the drinking of a lot of alcohol, specifically beer. One drink that is often seen around the holiday is "Green Beer". This is really just regular beer with green food coloring. Many people feel like the holiday celebrates stereotypes about the Irish, like the myth that they all like to drink and get drunk. Others complain that the holiday has become too focused on drinking, with public drunkenness as a problem in major cities around the holiday. 10 Fascinating Facts St Patrick's Day is being celebrated by Irish communities around the world. Here we list 10fascinating facts about the celebration of Ireland's patron saint: 圣帕特里克节(St. Patrick's Day)是每年的3月17日,是为了纪念爱尔兰守护神圣帕特里克。这一节日5世纪末期起源于爱尔兰,如今已成为爱尔兰的国庆节。随着爱尔兰后裔遍布世界各地,现在,圣帕特里克节已经渐渐在一些国家成为节日。圣帕特里克节是全世界爱尔兰团体都在庆贺的节日。下面是关于节日庆祝的10个有趣事实。 1. St. Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland, although he was born in Britain, around 385AD. Hisparents Calpurnius and Conchessa were Roman citizens living in either Scotland or Wales, according to different versions of his story. 虽然是在公元385年前后出生在不列颠岛,但圣帕特里克是爱尔兰的守护神。根据不同版本的历史记载,他的父母卡尔普尔尼乌斯和孔切萨是居住在苏格兰或者威尔士的罗马公民。 2. As a boy of 14 he was captured and taken to Ireland where he spent six years in slaveryherding sheep. He returned to Ireland in his 30s as a missionary among the Celtic pagans. 14岁时,圣帕特里克被捕并被带往爱尔兰,在那里他作为奴隶牧羊6年。三十多岁时,圣帕特里克作为凯尔特异教徒传教士回到爱尔兰。 3. Legend has it that he used the native shamrock as a symbol of the holy trinity whenpreaching and brought the Latin alphabet to Ireland. 传说他在传教时使用当地的三叶草作为神圣的三位一体的象征,并且把拉丁字母表介绍到爱尔兰。 4. Miracles attributed to him include the driving of serpents out of Ireland. However, evidence suggests post-glacial Ireland never had any snakes in the first place. 圣帕特里克成功将大毒蛇赶出爱尔兰的传说增加了他的传奇色彩。然而证据显示爱尔兰在冰河期以后从没有过蛇。 5. Wearing green, eating green food and even drinking green beer, is said to commemorate StPatrick's use of the shamrock - although blue was the original colour of his vestments. 据说身穿绿色服装,吃绿色食物,甚至喝绿色啤酒是为了纪念圣帕特里克使用三叶草,尽管他的法衣最初是蓝色。 6. St Patrick was said to have proclaimed that everyone should have a drop of the "hard stuff"on his feast day after chastising an innkeeper who served a short measure of whiskey. In thecustom known as "drowning the shamrock", the shamrock that has been worn on a lapel or hatis put in the last drink of the evening. 据说圣帕特里克曾训斥了一位卖威士忌缺斤短两的酒馆老板。此后圣帕特里克声明每个人在他的宗教节日都应该喝一滴“烈性酒”。因此在“淹没三叶草”这个众所周知的习俗中,节日里戴在西服翻领或者帽子上的三叶草最后会被放在酒里作为晚上最后一饮。 7. Popular Irish toasts on St Patrick's Day, include: may the roof above us never fall in, and may we friends beneath it never fall out. 爱尔兰圣帕特里克节的流行祝酒语包括:愿头上屋顶不倒,屋下朋友不分。 8. St. Patrick's Day was first celebrated in America in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1737. Around34 million modern Americans claim Irish ancestry. 美国马萨诸塞州的波士顿于1737年首次庆祝圣帕特里克节。大约3400万现代美国人自认为是爱尔兰后裔。 9. It is believed that St Patrick died on March 17 in 461AD. It is a national holiday in Ireland, andon the island of Montserrat in the Caribbean, which was founded by Irish refugees. It is a bankholiday in Northern Ireland and a provincial holiday in the Canadian province of Newfoundland. 据说圣帕特里克在公元461年3月17日去世。圣帕特里克节是爱尔兰和加勒比地区由爱尔兰难民建立的蒙特塞拉特岛的国定假日,在北爱尔兰是公共假日,也是加拿大纽芬兰省的假日。 10. Dublin has a parade that attracts hundreds of thousands of people, while in Chicago theriver is dyed green for a few hours. The biggest parade is normally held in New York, while thelargest celebration in the southern hemisphere is in Sydney, Australia. 在圣帕特里克节,柏林的游行会吸引成千上万的人;在芝加哥河流会被染成绿色持续几个小时。最盛大的节日游行一般在纽约;南半球规模最大的庆祝仪式是在澳大利亚的悉尼。 美国St. Patrick's Day 美国的春天有两个重要的节日:首先是Easter 复活节,其深刻沉重的宗教内涵和轻松活泼的世俗意义浑然结为一体。另一个节日,就是St. Patrick's Day ,将宗教世俗化到了淋漓尽致的地步。原本只是爱尔兰传统节日的St. Patrick's Day,如今却在世界各地广为庆祝,这小小岛国迸发出的能量可见一斑。St. Patrick's Day对于美国人一样意义深远,身在美国的华人也许心里难免有些羡慕,什么时候我们的春节也能在异国他乡受到如此之高的礼遇啊!回顾爱尔兰人的移民史,追溯 St. Patrick Day 的来龙去脉,可以看到,爱尔兰人与华人一样,走过了一条十分艰辛移民路。 圣帕特里克节(St. Patrick's Day)是每年的3月17日,是为了纪念爱尔兰守护神圣帕特里克而成立的。这一节日在5世纪末期起源于爱尔兰,美国从1737年3月17日开始庆祝。 公元432年,圣帕特里克受教皇派遣前往爱尔兰劝说爱尔兰人皈依基督教。他从威克洛上岸后,当地愤怒的异教徒企图用石头将他砸死。但圣帕特里克临危不惧,当即摘下一棵三叶苜蓿,形象地阐明了圣父、圣子、圣灵三位一体的教义。他雄辩的演说使爱尔兰人深受感动,接受了圣帕特里克主施的隆重洗礼。公元493年3月17日,圣帕特里克逝世,爱尔兰人为了纪念他,将这一天定为圣帕特里克节,三叶苜蓿成了爱尔兰的象征。 1737年,一些爱尔兰绅士和商人们在美国马萨诸塞州波士顿聚会纪念圣帕特里克,并成立了爱尔兰慈善社团。1780年和1784年,费城和纽约先后成立了圣帕特里克友谊之子等团体,从此美国每年都庆祝这个节日。 美国的圣帕特里克节这一天,人们通常要举行游行、教堂礼拜和聚餐等活动。美国的爱尔兰人喜欢佩带三叶苜蓿,用爱尔兰的国旗颜色——绿黄两色装饰房间,身穿绿色衣服,并向宾客赠送三叶苜蓿饰物等。爱尔兰流传着一首民谣: The Green Fields of America “So pack up your sea-stores, consider no longer, Ten dollars a week is not very bad pay, With no taxes or tithes to devour up your wages, When you're on the green fields of America." 岛国爱尔兰只有四百二十多万人,而在美国,自称具有爱尔兰血统或者渊源的人就是爱尔兰人口总额的十倍多,St. Patrick's Day 成为美国举国上下欢庆的节日,也许就不足为奇了。 爱尔兰人后裔主要聚居区在纽约、波士顿、芝加哥、费城、巴尔帝摩以及乔治亚州的Savannah ;尽管如此,移民大州加州的爱尔兰裔人口仍居各州之最。爱尔兰人有着与犹太人一般对 Diaspora (离散) 这个充满史诗般创痛名词的体验。 早在1845 年的Potato Blight/Great Potato Famine 之前就有无数多的人由于来自英国的宗教压迫等因素开始大量移民,到19 世纪中叶,大多数美国的爱尔兰裔都属于中产阶层;饥荒发生后,多达百万的爱尔兰人远渡重洋寻求一条活路,从1820 至1920 百年间就有四百五十万爱尔兰人投奔新大陆。当年的爱尔兰移民大多一贫如洗,目不识丁,来美国只为干点杂活吃碗饱饭。他们备受美国人的歧视,只能在体力劳务市场上谋点生路,因而也有不少人为混口军饷加入军队甘当炮灰。即便如此他们再就业仍然遇到了相当的困难,当时不少招工广告都不忘在最后附上一句:”No Irish Need Apply.” 本以为美国黄金遍野,结果寄人篱下讨生活的日子却颇让人失意。有这么一曲小调 “Paddy’s Lamentation,” 唱的就是新移民的困窘: "Hear me boys, now take my advice, To America I'll have yet not be going, There is nothing here but war, where the murdering' cannons roar, And I wish I was at home in dear old Dublin. " 美国最早开始庆祝St. Patrick Day 却是在爱尔兰大移民之前,1737 年服役于军中的爱尔兰人首先在波士顿举行游行以缅怀自己的乡土情结,1762 的3 月17 日年又有一群爱尔兰裔军人走上纽约的街头欢庆自己祖国的节日,此后这个习俗年年相传,虽然最初遭到了美国媒体的嘲讽,爱尔兰人却意识到节日狂欢中的政治意义,由此将这一天作为呈现爱尔兰移民风貌和凝聚力的契机。 1948 年,杜鲁门成为第一位参加St. Patrick's Day 游行的美国总统,当时的爱尔兰裔受宠若惊奔走相告。2000 年,深切崇拜爱尔兰移民第四代JFK 的克林顿偕同希拉里出席了2000 年纽约的St. Patrick's Day 欢庆仪式,并致辞寄予爱尔兰裔民众,将St. Patrick's Day 的特殊政治历史又做了新的圈点。 爱尔兰的护国天使圣帕特里克(St. Patrick)的事迹,以及圣帕特里克节的由来。 On March 17, millions of Americans celebrate Saint Patrick’s Day. Many cities have huge parades with marching bands. People wear green clothing. Some tint 给……着色 their hair green. Food is colored green. In Chicago 芝加哥, hundreds of pounds of green dye is poured into the Chicago River so that the water runs green. Saint Patrick's Day originated in Ireland. Saint Patrick is that country’s patron saint 守护圣人. The word patron means “protector or defender” or “father.” When the Irish people came to America, they continued to honor the memory of Saint Patrick. Now Irish-Americans all over the United States hold celebrations, and people of many nationalities join in. 听读美国小故事 Saint Patrick was born over 1600 years ago. At that time, the people in the country that is now Ireland were pagans. This means they had no religion. Saint Patrick was a Christian. He became a Roman Catholic bishop 主教. Although he was not Irish, he went to Ireland to teach the people Christianity 基督教. The people admired him and took up his religion. He helped them build churches and schools. 听读美国小故事 Many legends are told about Saint Patrick. Some say he used the shamrock - a green three-leaved plant - to help explain the idea of the Holy Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). That is why people wear green on Saint Patrick’s Day. It is also said that Saint Patrick had power over demons 魔鬼 and serpents 大蛇,毒蛇, and that he drove all of the snakes out of Ireland. Saint Patrick died on March 17 around the year 461. THE SNAKE It has long been recounted that, during his mission in Ireland, St. Patrick once stood on a hilltop (which is now called Croagh Patrick), and with only a wooden staff by his side, banished all the snakes from Ireland. In fact, the island nation was never home to any snakes. The “banishing of the snakes” was really a metaphor for the eradication of pagan ideology from Ireland and the triumph of Christianity. Within 200 years of Patrick’s arrival, Ireland was completely Christianized. St. Patrick’s Day’s tradition St. Patrick’s Day is a holiday known for parades, shamrocks and all things Irish. From leprechauns to the color green, find out how symbols we now associate with St. Patrick’s Day came to be, and learn about a few that are purely American invention. CORNED BEEF Each year, thousands of Irish Americans gather with their loved ones on St. Patrick’s Day to share a “traditional” meal of corned beef and cabbage. Though cabbage has long been an Irish food, corned beef only began to be associated with St. Patrick’s Day at the turn of the century. Irish immigrants living on New York City’s Lower East Side substituted corned beef for their traditional dish of Irish bacon to save money. They learned about the cheaper alternative from their Jewish neighbors. THE LEPRECHAUN The original Irish name for these figures of folklore is “lobaircin,” meaning “small-bodied fellow.” Belief in leprechauns probably stems from Celtic belief in fairies, tiny men and women who could use their magical powers to serve good or evil. In Celtic folktales, leprechauns were cranky souls, responsible for mending the shoes of the other fairies. Though only minor figures in Celtic folklore, leprechauns were known for their trickery, which they often used to protect their much-fabled treasure. IRISH MUSIC Music is often associated with St. Patrick’s Day—and Irish culture in general. From ancient days of the Celts, music has always been an important part of Irish life. The Celts had an oral culture, where religion, legend and history were passed from one generation to the next by way of stories and songs. After being conquered by the English, and forbidden to speak their own language, the Irish, like other oppressed peoples, turned to music to help them remember important events and hold on to their heritage and history. As it often stirred emotion and helped to galvanize people, music was outlawed by the English. During her reign, Queen Elizabeth I even decreed that all artists and pipers were to be arrested and hanged on the spot. Today, traditional Irish bands like The Chieftains, the Clancy Brothers and Tommy Makem are gaining worldwide popularity. Their music is produced with instruments that have been used for centuries, including the fiddle, the uilleann pipes (a sort of elaborate bagpipe), the tin whistle (a sort of flute that is actually made of nickel-silver, brass or aluminum) and the bodhran (an ancient type of framedrum that was traditionally used in warfare rather than music). THE SHAMROCK The shamrock, which was also called the “seamroy” by the Celts, was a sacred plant in ancient Ireland because it symbolized the rebirth of spring. By the seventeenth century, the shamrock had become a symbol of emerging Irish nationalism. As the English began to seize Irish land and make laws against the use of the Irish language and the practice of Catholicism, many Irish began to wear the shamrock as a symbol of their pride in their heritage and their displeasure with English rule. The color traditionally associated with St. Patrick was blue, not green. Get the real story about this beloved Irish holiday and the patron saint it's named after. In America, St. Patrick’s Day, on March 17, has long been commemorated with rollicking festivities, but until recent decades, the holiday, which honors Ireland’s patron saint, was traditionally a more solemn occasion on the Emerald Isle. The man for whom St. Patrick’s Day is named was born into an aristocratic family in Roman Britain around the end of the fourth century. As a teenager, he was kidnapped by Irish pirates and taken to Ireland, where he was held as a slave for a number of years. He eventually escaped the island, only to return later as a missionary and convert part of the population to Christianity. Centuries after his death, which some sources cite as March 17, 461, although the exact date is unknown, Patrick became the patron saint of Ireland, and March 17 became a holy day of obligation for the nation’s Catholics. Thanks to Irish immigrants in the United States and elsewhere, St. Patrick’s Day evolved from a religious holiday into a secular celebration of all things Irish. The first St. Patrick’s Day parade was held in New York City in the 1760s, by Irishmen serving there in the British military. During the 19th century, when Irish Catholic immigrants faced discrimination in Protestant-majority America, St. Patrick’s Day parades became an opportunity to show strength in numbers. Today, with some 34.5 million Americans claiming to be primarily or partially of Irish descent—makng Irish ancestry the second-most commonly reported in the United States, after German—the wearing of the green on March 17 is still going strong. (Australia and Canada are among other locales with long-standing St. Paddy’s Day traditions.) Meanwhile, back in the old country, where until the 1970s pubs were closed on St. Patrick’s Day, the Irish are catching up to their counterparts across the pond when it comes to revelry. Since the mid-1990s, the government, in part to promote tourism and boost the economy, has sponsored a multi-day St. Patrick’s Festival in Dublin, featuring a parade and a variety of performances and activities; there are similar events in other sections of the country as well. How Do We Celebrate St. Patrick's Day? 1、穿成绿色。 一件全绿的T恤衫,上面印有与爱尔兰相关的话如“我是爱尔兰人,吻我!”十岁以上的爱尔兰人穿这种衣服也没事。也可以穿印有爱尔兰啤酒名字的T恤衫,如Harp或Guinness。 对于特别想要制造节日气氛的人,可以购买或制作绿色老矮人服装,搭配白色长袜,绿色大礼帽和假红胡子(真的更好)。 如果在3月17日那天你还需要工作的话,可以在工作服上里面穿一件绿衣服来感受节日的氛围。可以试着搭配绿色条纹的polo衫或绿领子的衬衫、绿色或三叶草点状的领带、或绿袜子和绿内衣。 2、装饰品。 如“what's the craic?”相当于“最近怎么样?”“发生了什么事?”或“怎么了?”,一般用于非正式场合。“craic”是重要的爱尔兰单词,可以用于形容你很享受某件事或某个活动。如“聚会怎么样?”“哈,真是太好玩了!”在正确场合使用“Craic”这个单词可以让你大大的获得爱尔兰人的好感。 “Grand.” 在爱尔兰英语中“Grand”有几层含义。它的意思不是盛大的或令人印象深刻的,而是说“好”或“太棒了”,根据语境而定。“I’m grand.”能够用于回答“你好吗?”,意思是说他一切都好。如果你问爱尔兰人“考得怎么样?”而他的回答是“It was grand”,那就意味着还行,考的不好也不坏。 “Eejit” ,爱尔兰语中一般用于表示白痴的意思。如果有人做了一件很傻或很愚蠢的事情,你可以说说“Ah ya big eejit!”,这样说并不无礼,相反还是一种幽默的嘲笑方式。

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